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The draw for the semi-finals and final to determine the "home" team for administrative purposes was held on 24 April The UEFA technical study group selected the following 18 players as the squad of the tournament: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Parma , the sixth-placed team of the —14 Serie A , would have qualified for the Europa League third qualifying round, but failed to obtain a UEFA licence.
Derry City are a club based in Northern Ireland, but participate in the Europa League through one of the berths for Republic of Ireland as they finished fourth in the League of Ireland Premier Division any coefficient points they earn count toward Republic of Ireland and not Northern Ireland.
Metalurh Donetsk , the sixth-placed team of the —14 Ukrainian Premier League , would have qualified for the Europa League second qualifying round, but had been excluded from participating by the UEFA Club Financial Control Body due to overdue payables.
Stadion Narodowy , Warsaw. Martin Atkinson England . Retrieved 28 May Union of European Football Associations.
Archived from the original on Retrieved 13 May Retrieved 14 May Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano. Comisia de Apel a respins cererea clubului Dinamo pentru licenta europeana!
Turkish side lose match-fixing ban appeal". Retrieved 18 May Retrieved 27 May Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 17 September , at Foton Forland Auman 10 wheel 3 axle 6x4 6x6 heavy duty hp Euro 3 concrete truck mixer 15 m3 15 cbm for sale.
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EUR is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, and counts about million citizens as of [update].
The currency is also used officially by the institutions of the European Union , by four European microstates that are not EU members,  as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo.
Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. The euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar.
The name euro was officially adopted on 16 December in Madrid. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January , making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, and by March it had completely replaced the former currencies.
The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt -based European Central Bank ECB and the Eurosystem composed of the central banks of the eurozone countries.
As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria , although not all states have done so.
The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions,  while Sweden which joined the EU in , after the Maastricht Treaty was signed turned down the euro in a referendum, and has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements.
All nations that have joined the EU since have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. These liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The euro is divided into cents sometimes referred to as euro cents , especially when distinguishing them from other currencies, and referred to as such on the common side of all cent coins.
In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s , notwithstanding normal English usage.
All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, and a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union , the Latin alphabet version of euro is used as opposed to the less common Greek or Cyrillic and Arabic numerals other text is used on national sides in national languages, but other text on the common side is avoided.
For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced.
Beginning in or depending on the country the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe also showing countries outside the Union like Norway , Ukraine , Belarus , Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, however, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of raised somewhat above the rest of the map.
All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin.
Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland   by voluntary agreement and in Finland by law.
These coins are legal tender throughout the eurozone. Collector coins with various other denominations have been issued as well, but these are not intended for general circulation, and they are legal tender only in the member state that issued them.
The design for the euro banknotes has common designs on both sides. The design was created by the Austrian designer Robert Kalina.
Each banknote has its own colour and is dedicated to an artistic period of European architecture. The front of the note features windows or gateways while the back has bridges, symbolising links between countries and with the future.
While the designs are supposed to be devoid of any identifiable characteristics, the initial designs by Robert Kalina were of specific bridges, including the Rialto and the Pont de Neuilly , and were subsequently rendered more generic; the final designs still bear very close similarities to their specific prototypes; thus they are not truly generic.
The monuments looked similar enough to different national monuments to please everyone. Capital within the EU may be transferred in any amount from one country to another.
All intra-EU transfers in euro are treated as domestic transactions and bear the corresponding domestic transfer costs. Of the symbol, the EC stated .
The European Commission also specified a euro logo with exact proportions and foreground and background colour tones. Placement of the currency sign relative to the numeric amount varies from nation to nation, but for texts in English the symbol or the ISO -standard "EUR" should precede the amount.
The euro was established by the provisions in the Maastricht Treaty. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro.
For macroeconomic theory, see below. The name "euro" was officially adopted in Madrid on 16 December Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro.
The definitive values of one euro in terms of the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro are shown on the right.
The rates were determined by the Council of the European Union , [note 16] based on a recommendation from the European Commission based on the market rates on 31 December The European Currency Unit was an accounting unit used by the EU, based on the currencies of the member states; it was not a currency in its own right.
They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies principally the pound sterling that day.
The procedure used to fix the conversion rate between the Greek drachma and the euro was different, since the euro by then was already two years old.
While the conversion rates for the initial eleven currencies were determined only hours before the euro was introduced, the conversion rate for the Greek drachma was fixed several months beforehand.
Their exchange rates were locked at fixed rates against each other. The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state.
The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December , though the exchange period lasted for two months more.
Even after the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from several years to indefinitely the latter for Austria, Germany, Ireland, Estonia and Latvia in banknotes and coins, and for Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Slovakia in banknotes only.
The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos , which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December , although banknotes remain exchangeable until The authors conclude that the crisis "is as much political as economic" and the result of the fact that the euro area lacks the support of "institutional paraphernalia and mutual bonds of solidarity of a state".
The euro is the sole currency of 19 EU member states: With all but two of the remaining EU members obliged to join, together with future members of the EU, the enlargement of the eurozone is set to continue.
The euro has been used as a trading currency in Cuba since ,  and Syria since In , Zimbabwe abandoned its local currency and used major currencies instead, including the euro and the United States dollar.
Since its introduction, the euro has been the second most widely held international reserve currency after the U. Over this period, the share held in U.
The euro inherited and built on the status of the Deutsche Mark as the second most important reserve currency.
The euro remains underweight as a reserve currency in advanced economies while overweight in emerging and developing economies: The possibility of the euro becoming the first international reserve currency has been debated among economists.
Outside the eurozone, a total of 22 countries and territories that do not belong to the EU have currencies that are directly pegged to the euro including 14 countries in mainland Africa CFA franc , two African island countries Comorian franc and Cape Verdean escudo , three French Pacific territories CFP franc and three Balkan countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark , Bulgaria Bulgarian lev and Macedonia Macedonian denar.
With the exception of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Macedonia which had pegged their currencies against the Deutsche Mark and Cape Verde formerly pegged to the Portuguese escudo , all of these non-EU countries had a currency peg to the French Franc before pegging their currencies to the euro.
Within the EU several currencies are pegged to the euro, mostly as a precondition to joining the eurozone. In economics, an optimum currency area, or region OCA or OCR , is a geographical region in which it would maximise economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency.
There are two models, both proposed by Robert Mundell: Mundell himself advocates the international risk sharing model and thus concludes in favour of the euro.
Before the lates recession it was considered unlikely that a state would leave the euro or the whole zone would collapse. John Lanchester, writing for The New Yorker , explains it:.
The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is to remove the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades.
For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments e.
Financial markets on the continent are expected to be far more liquid and flexible than they were in the past. The reduction in cross-border transaction costs will allow larger banking firms to provide a wider array of banking services that can compete across and beyond the eurozone.
However, although transaction costs were reduced, some studies have shown that risk aversion has increased during the last 40 years in the Eurozone.
Another effect of the common European currency is that differences in prices—in particular in price levels—should decrease because of the law of one price.
Differences in prices can trigger arbitrage , i. Therefore, prices on commonly traded goods are likely to converge, causing inflation in some regions and deflation in others during the transition.
Some evidence of this has been observed in specific eurozone markets. Before the introduction of the euro, some countries had successfully contained inflation, which was then seen as a major economic problem, by establishing largely independent central banks.
The euro has come under criticism due to its imperialistic style regulation, lack of flexibility and  rigidity towards sharing member States on issues such as nominal interest rates.
Many national and corporate bonds denominated in euro are significantly more liquid and have lower interest rates than was historically the case when denominated in national currencies.
While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role.
A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate.
Unfortunately, there is also a cost in structurally keeping inflation lower than in the United States, UK, and China.
The result is that seen from those countries, the euro has become expensive, making European products increasingly expensive for its largest importers.
Hence export from the euro zone becomes more difficult. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euros are served by high stability and low inflation.
A monetary union means countries lose the main mechanism of recovery of their international competitiveness by weakening depreciating their currency.
When wages become too high compared to productivity in exports sector then these exports become more expensive and they are crowded out from the market within a country and abroad.
This drive fall of employment and output in exports sector and fall of trade and current account balances.Ort, Bundesland oder Postleitzahl. Viel lieber wird ein kleines Geschenk mit lustiger oder kreativer Botschaft verschenkt. Sie haben eine E-Mail erhalten! Altmeppen ist ab dem Use for to create your resume on Indeed and apply to jobs quicker. Lehrstuhl für Bürgerliches Recht, Handels- und Wirtschaftsre Wir haben Ihnen eine Newsletter Bestätigung zugesendet. Finanzen Weiter zum Inhalt. Wir zahlen 12 bis 15 Euro pro Stunde und rechnen immer mindestens 2 Stunden ab, auch wenn der Einsatz kürzer ist Danach gehen Sie zur Kasse und entscheiden sich für die bevorzugte Bezahlmethode. Du kannst zwischen 4 und 9 Stunden pro Tag arbeiten, solltest aber mindestens 15 Stunden pro Woche Als perfektes Beispiel dient das Wichtelgeschenk bis 15 Euro. You consent to receiving marketing messages from Indeed and may opt from receiving such messages by following the unsubscribe link in our messages, or as detailed in our terms. Bitte prüfen Sie die aktuellen Kurse nach, bevor Sie Transaktionen vornehmen, die von Wechselkursschwankungen betroffen sein könnten.