Portugal. Caballero, R. D., De prima typographiae Hispanicae aetate. Rom ; 2 ed. Madrid — Mendez, Franc, Tipografia Espafiola. Madrid ; 2 ed. Detailinfo zu Portugal mit Karte, der Hauptstadt sowie den Nachbarländern. Die Liste europäischer Nachbarstaaten gibt für alle Staaten Europas an, mit wie vielen und Moldau, Niederlande,; 1 Nachbarland: Irland, Monaco, Portugal, San Marino, Vatikanstadt, Vereinigtes Königreich; Keine Nachbarländer: Island. Nach der Reconquista mussten sie das Land verlassen oder sich den Christen unterwerfen. Juni oder den Heiligen Petrus am Dieser Bitte entsprach die Regierung am Gegen die mangelnde Volksbildung und den Analphabetismus wurde systematische Erwachsenenbildung und Leseförderung betrieben. Zwar ist Portugal mit etwa Zum einen gab es keine neuen, innovativen Techniken und Formen aus dem Land. FC Amberg am Scheideweg. Das älteste in Portugal gefundene menschliche Fossil stammt von Neandertalern , die vor etwa Der als Architekt des portugiesischen Wirtschaftsaufschwungs in den Jahren bis geltende jährige Wirtschaftsprofessor wurde damit der erste bürgerliche Präsident in Portugal seit der Nelkenrevolution von In der Zeit des Estado Novo — waren die Bedeutung der Bibliotheken und die Bibliotheksarbeit selbst durch Zensur und Restriktionen stark eingeschränkt. Daneben bestehen berufsständische und private Gesundheitssysteme. Das natürliche Bevölkerungswachstum war leicht negativ, stagnierte es. Zusammen mit Spanien ist Portugal an den Ibero-Amerikanischen Gipfeltreffen beteiligt, die vor allem den Dialog mit den Ländern Lateinamerikas fördern sollen. An welches Meer grenzen die Niederlande?
Portugal Nachbarländer Video48 Grad in Portugal und Spanien erwartet
See also special school. Hence, every municipality do things differently. Some municipalities assist the parents by providing funding for educational materials, while other municipalities make it a child protection issue.
Homeschooling is only allowed on highly regulated terms. Every child must be enrolled in a school as of , the school does not need to be a public school.
The school principal may, but is not obliged to, allow of homeschooling a particular child. Homeschooled children are required to pass annual exams covering material in school curriculum, and failure on an exam automatically terminates the homeschooling permit.
There are at least two forms of education that look like homeschooling. The local authorities are obliged to pay the parents some money, but no specific requirements exist.
The formal, usually annual, interim examinations "Промежуточная Аттестация" , even the online ones, are mandatory at least in the 4th and 9th grades.
Many children finish a 9-year curriculum in less than 3 years. There is a hybrid form of education, when the child can attend the classes of his choice and the rest of the subjects study on his own.
According to Slovenian Ministry of Education it was based on Danish model of home education. The compulsory school-age starts at 6 and lasts for 9 years  Page 18 Article The child being home educated is required to enroll into a local school public or private and pass annual exam in certain subjects mother tongue and math only in lower grades; with addition of foreign language in middle grades and more subjects in higher grades,   Page 22 Article Every year the parents have to notify the school before starting  new school year that they will be home educating their child.
There are no special requirements for parents wanting to home educate their children. Parents are not eligible for any kind of state help nor are schools required to provide any kind of assistance.
The schools are free to choose they often do  whether they will allow special arrangements with home educated children flexi-schooling, the use of school resources, participation in field trips and other school activities, etc.
The Ministry of Education and schools are not required to provide any form of help to parents of home educated children teacher guides, worksheets, consultation, etc.
As of July there are no organised home education groups in Slovenia. Homeschooling is legal with obstacles in Slovak Republic. However homeschooling is restricted only to the first four years of primary education.
In Spain homeschooling is in somewhat of a legal vacuum. In a family went in front of the Spanish Constitutional Court to argue that the Spanish education laws are not in accordance with the parental rights granted by the Constitution and are therefore unlawful.
The decision made by the Constitutional Court made it clear that current education laws were in fact lawful interpretations of the Constitution with the result that since effectively school attendance is considered mandatory in Spain for all children from 6 to In the regional government of Catalonia amended its education law so that now according to article 55 "education without attendance to school" is a viable option.
Hence the newly amended Catalan law can only refer to pupils who have special needs or are for some other reason unable attend school regularly in order that they may have their educational rights met.
In Sweden, children are obligated to attend school from the age of 6 . In Sweden passed a law SFS Homeschooling is only allowed for certain specific reasons such as for children of parents working temporarily in the country.
Homeschooling will not be approved based on religious beliefs or philosophical reasons, nor is there an automatic approval if the parent has had teacher training.
Recent court cases have supported these restrictions on parents. The Domenic Johansson custody case has been cited as an example of the difficulty in receiving permissions.
Homeschooling is legal in Switzerland. Requirements vary from Canton to Canton. Approx — families currently homeschool. Parents and persons who substitute them shall be obliged to assist children to get education in educational institutions or provide them with full-value home education in accordance with the requirements to its content, level and scope.
Homeschooling is legal in the United Kingdom. Parents are legally required to ensure that their children receive "efficient full-time education suitable to [their] age, ability and aptitude, and A report commissioned by the UK government in found that councils were aware of approximately 20, children being homeschooled, but that the true number could be in excess of 80, In , Victoria passed legislation  requiring the registration of children up to the age of 16 and increasing the school leaving age to 16 from the previous 15, undertaking home education registration is optional for those age of 16—17 but highly recommended.
As of July there were 6, homeschooled pupils registered with the Ministry of Education. It is an increase of These students belong to 2, families and represent 0.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Homeschooling is legal with certain restrictions. Homeschooling in the United States.
Homeschooling and alternative education in India. Home education in the United Kingdom. Homeschooling in New Zealand.
An overview of the contemporary situation" PDF. Evaluation and Research in Education. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on July 18, Retrieved June 26, Retrieved 31 August Biayanya Murah, Mutu Tak Kalah".
Retrieved December 10, But it did not. There is a difference between the persecution of a discrete group and the prosecution of those who violate a generally applicable law.
As the Board of Immigration Appeals permissibly found, the German authorities have not singled out the Romeikes in particular or homeschoolers in general for persecution.
Christen-Sekte soll Kinder ins Ausland gebracht haben". Retrieved February 7, Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Retrieved October 13, Retrieved 25 June Pravna podloga" Archived at Archive.
Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya. Archived from the original on May 13, Folgerichtig wurde am Nach der Parlamentswahl am 4.
In einer Fernsehrede an die Nation am Abend des November Costa, der ein Ende der unsozialen Politik versprach und den Mindestlohn und die Renten anheben und die Wirtschaft ankurbeln will, mit der Regierungsbildung unter der Auflage, den Regeln der Euro-Zone zu folgen und den internationalen Verpflichtungen Portugals nachzukommen.
November als Premierminister im Amt. Er ernennt einen Premierminister und den Ministerrat, wobei er sich am Ergebnis der Parlamentswahlen zu orientieren hat.
Man spricht in dem Zusammenhang von der Herausbildung eines parlamentarischen Regierungssystems. Die Regierung wird vom Premierminister geleitet, der sich einen Ministerrat zusammenstellt.
Jede neue Regierung muss dem Parlament ihr Programm zur Debatte vorlegen. Wird es nicht abgelehnt, ist die Regierung vom Parlament akzeptiert.
Juni im Parlament vertreten. Das Land hatte den Vorsitz bereits im ersten Halbjahr Dies macht sich bis heute bemerkbar: Der Pflichtschulunterricht ist an staatlichen Schulen kostenlos.
Trotzdem ist etwa ein Drittel der Studenten bei einer privaten Institution eingeschrieben. Zu statistischen Zwecken sind zudem 28 sogenannte statistische Unterregionen eingerichtet.
Bis zur administrativen Neuordnung waren es Gemeinden. Die bis herrschende allgemeine Wehrpflicht ist ausgesetzt. Jahrhundert vor allem vom deutschen Recht beeinflusst worden.
Die Entwicklung im Land ist jedoch sehr unterschiedlich. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt Portugals betrug im Jahr ,1 Mrd. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt pro Kopf betrug im selben Jahr ca.
Im April lag die Arbeitslosigkeit in Portugal bei 9,8 Prozent — 7,9 Prozentpunkte weniger als noch Vor der Krise, , hatte die Arbeitslosenquote bei 7,6 Prozent gelegen.
Insgesamt wurden im Jahre 48,5 Mrd. Im Jahr waren in Portugal Windkraftanlagen mit einer Nennleistung von 5. Im Mai wurde das Land Stunden bzw.
Der Uranabbau wurde jedoch zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts wegen Unwirtschaftlichkeit eingestellt. Die Atombombe von Hiroshima enthielt portugiesisches Uran.
Zwar ist Portugal mit etwa Ausdruck findet diese Entwicklung in zahlreichen Firmeninsolvenzen und Abwanderungen aus den Korkanbauregionen.
Die portugiesische Fischereiflotte ist im Vergleich zur spanischen schwach entwickelt. Der meiste Fisch wird importiert.
Jahrhundert - leisteten die 3 deutschen Kopke , Burmester und Andresen einen entscheidenden Beitrag zur Entwicklung des Portwein.
Auf der Atlantikinsel Madeira begann der Tourismus in der Mitte des Jahrhunderts; die Insel war eines der bevorzugten Ziele wohlhabender britischer Reisender.
Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von 92,2 Mrd. Dollar, dem standen Einnahmen von 87,2 Mrd. Entwicklung des BIP nominal , Eurostat .
Haupthandelspartner Portugals , Quelle: Das Eisenbahnnetz Portugals ist relativ weitmaschig. Auf den Hauptverkehrsrouten sind die Verbindungen jedoch effizient, der Alfa Pendular bietet die schnellsten Verbindungen zwischen den Ballungszentren.
In Lissabon gibt es eine U-Bahn. Ab soll der Betrieb aufgenommen werden. Portugal wird manchmal als Land der Poeten bezeichnet. Im Mittelalter , als die portugiesische Nation entstand, war im Nordwesten der Iberischen Halbinsel die Poesie weit verbreitet.
Es entstanden exzellente epische wie lyrische Werke. To the authorities, counterintelligence was a fundamental line of defence.
With a regular army of only slightly over seven thousand men at the start of the war, and with limited supplies of modern weapons, the state would have had great difficulty in defending itself from invasion from either side in the conflict.
Large-scale emigration marked most of the post-WWII period particularly during the s and s , but beginning in the economy improved, and the s saw the beginning of substantial economic growth.
This period of growth became known as the Celtic Tiger. In , it was the sixth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.
Social changes also occurred in this time, most markedly with the decline in authority of the Catholic Church.
The financial crisis that began in dramatically ended this period of boom. Northern Ireland resulted from the division of the United Kingdom by the Government of Ireland Act , and until was a self-governing jurisdiction within the United Kingdom with its own parliament and prime minister.
Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, was not neutral during the Second World War and Belfast suffered four bombing raids in Conscription was not extended to Northern Ireland and roughly an equal number volunteered from Northern Ireland as volunteered from the south.
Although Northern Ireland was largely spared the strife of the civil war, in decades that followed partition there were sporadic episodes of inter-communal violence.
Nationalists, mainly Roman Catholic, wanted to unite Ireland as an independent republic, whereas unionists, mainly Protestant, wanted Northern Ireland to remain in the United Kingdom.
The Protestant and Catholic communities in Northern Ireland voted largely along sectarian lines, meaning that the Government of Northern Ireland elected by "first-past-the-post" from was controlled by the Ulster Unionist Party.
Over time, the minority Catholic community felt increasingly alienated with further disaffection fuelled by practices such as gerrymandering and discrimination in housing and employment.
In the late s, nationalist grievances were aired publicly in mass civil rights protests, which were often confronted by loyalist counter-protests.
Law and order broke down as unrest and inter-communal violence increased. In , the paramilitary Provisional IRA , which favoured the creation of a united Ireland , emerged from a split in the Irish Republican Army and began a campaign against what it called the "British occupation of the six counties".
Other groups, on both the unionist side and the nationalist side, participated in violence and a period known as the Troubles began.
Over 3, deaths resulted over the subsequent three decades of conflict. There were several unsuccessful attempts to end the Troubles politically, such as the Sunningdale Agreement of In , following a ceasefire by the Provisional IRA and multi-party talks, the Good Friday Agreement was concluded as a treaty between the British and Irish governments, annexing the text agreed in the multi-party talks.
The substance of the Agreement formally referred to as the Belfast Agreement was later endorsed by referendums in both parts of Ireland.
The Agreement restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of power-sharing in a regional Executive drawn from the major parties in a new Northern Ireland Assembly , with entrenched protections for the two main communities.
The Executive is jointly headed by a First Minister and deputy First Minister drawn from the unionist and nationalist parties. Violence had decreased greatly after the Provisional IRA and loyalist ceasefires in and in the Provisional IRA announced the end of its armed campaign and an independent commission supervised its disarmament and that of other nationalist and unionist paramilitary organisations.
The Assembly and power-sharing Executive were suspended several times but were restored again in In that year the British government officially ended its military support of the police in Northern Ireland Operation Banner and began withdrawing troops.
Politically, the island is divided between the Republic of Ireland, an independent state , and Northern Ireland a constituent country of the United Kingdom.
They share an open border and both are part of the Common Travel Area. Both the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom are members of the European Union , having both acceded to its precursor entity, the European Economic Community [EEC], in , and as a consequence there is free movement of people, goods, services and capital across the border.
The Republic of Ireland is a parliamentary democracy based on the British model, with a written constitution and a popularly elected president who has mostly ceremonial powers.
Its capital is Dublin. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom with a local executive and assembly which exercise devolved powers. Its capital is Belfast.
Ultimately political power is held by the UK government , from which Northern Ireland has gone through intermittent periods of direct rule during which devolved powers have been suspended.
The Northern Ireland Secretary is a cabinet-level post in the British government. Along with England and Wales and with Scotland, Northern Ireland forms one of the three separate legal jurisdictions of the UK, all of which share the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom as their court of final appeal.
As part of the Good Friday Agreement , the British and Irish governments agreed on the creation of all-island institutions and areas of cooperation.
At least six of these policy areas must have an associated all-island "implementation bodies" and at least six others must be implemented separately in each jurisdiction.
The implementation bodies are: The British—Irish Intergovernmental Conference provides for co-operation between the Government of Ireland and the Government of the United Kingdom on all matter of mutual interest, especially Northern Ireland.
It has no formal powers but operates as a forum for discussing matters of common concern between the respective legislatures. Despite the two jurisdictions using two distinct currencies the euro and pound sterling , a growing amount of commercial activity is carried out on an all-Ireland basis.
There are three World Heritage Sites on the island: Dublin is the most heavily touristed region  and home to several of the most popular attractions such as the Guinness Storehouse and Book of Kells.
It is a popular tourist destination for surfing and contains 5 Blue Flag beaches and Croaghaun one of the worlds highest sea cliffs. Stately homes , built during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries in Palladian , Neoclassical and neo-Gothic styles, such as, Castle Ward , Castletown House , Bantry House , Glenveagh Castle are also of interest to tourists.
Skellig Michael , County Kerry. Newgrange , County Meath. Ireland has an ancient industry based on peat known locally as "turf" as a source of energy for home fires.
A form of biomass energy, this source of heat is still widely used in rural areas. However, due to the ecological importance of peatlands in storing carbon and their rarity, the EU is attempting to protect this habitat by fining Ireland if they are dug up.
In cities, heat is generally supplied by heating oil , although some urban suppliers distribute "sods of turf" as "smokeless fuel".
An area in which the island operates as a single market is electricity. Both networks were designed and constructed independently post partition.
However, as a result of changes over recent years they are now connected with three interlinks  and also connected through Great Britain to mainland Europe.
As with electricity, the natural gas distribution network is also now all-island, with a pipeline linking Gormanston, County Meath , and Ballyclare , County Antrim.
A decreasing supply is coming from the Kinsale gas field off the County Cork coast   and the Corrib Gas Field off the coast of County Mayo has yet to come on-line.
The County Mayo field is facing some localised opposition over a controversial decision to refine the gas onshore. The Republic has a strong commitment to renewable energy, and ranks as one of the top 10 markets for cleantech investment in the Global Green Economy Index.
Large wind farms have been constructed in Cork, Donegal, Mayo and Antrim. The construction of wind farms has in some cases been delayed by opposition from local communities, some of whom consider the wind turbines to be unsightly.
The Republic is hindered by an ageing network that was not designed to handle the varying availability of power that comes from wind farms.
As the term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland, the alternate term Britain and Ireland is often used as a neutral term for the islands.
A ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island. The highest of these is Carrauntoohil Irish: The island consists of varied geological provinces.
In the west, around County Galway and County Donegal , is a medium to high grade metamorphic and igneous complex of Caledonide affinity, similar to the Scottish Highlands.
Across southeast Ulster and extending southwest to Longford and south to Navan is a province of Ordovician and Silurian rocks, with similarities to the Southern Uplands province of Scotland.
Further south, along the County Wexford coastline, is an area of granite intrusives into more Ordovician and Silurian rocks, like that found in Wales.
The west-coast district of the Burren around Lisdoonvarna has well-developed karst features. Hydrocarbon exploration is ongoing following the first major find at the Kinsale Head gas field off Cork in the mids.
This has increased activity off the west coast in parallel with the " West of Shetland " step-out development from the North Sea hydrocarbon province.
Dunluce Castle , County Antrim. Benbulbin , County Sligo. Connemara , County Galway. Glendalough , County Wicklow.
Ardfert Cathedral , County Kerry. Glenbeg Lough , County Cork. Overall, Ireland has a mild but changeable oceanic climate with few extremes.
The climate is typically insular and is temperate , avoiding the extremes in temperature of many other areas in the world at similar latitudes.
Precipitation falls throughout the year but is light overall, particularly in the east. The west tends to be wetter on average and prone to Atlantic storms, especially in the late autumn and winter months.
These occasionally bring destructive winds and higher total rainfall to these areas, as well as sometimes snow and hail. The regions of north County Galway and east County Mayo have the highest incidents of recorded lightning annually for the island, with lightning occurring approximately five to ten days per year in these areas.
Inland areas are warmer in summer and colder in winter. Ireland is sometimes affected by heat waves, most recently in , , , and Because Ireland became isolated from mainland Europe by rising sea levels before the last ice age had completely finished, it has fewer land animal and plant species than Great Britain, which separated later, or mainland Europe.
There are 55 mammal species in Ireland and of them only 26 land mammal species are considered native to Ireland. Aquatic wildlife, such as species of sea turtle , shark , seal , whale , and dolphin , are common off the coast.
About species of birds have been recorded in Ireland. Many of these are migratory, including the barn swallow. Several different habitat types are found in Ireland, including farmland, open woodland, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests , conifer plantations, peat bogs and a variety of coastal habitats.
However, agriculture drives current land use patterns in Ireland, limiting natural habitat preserves,  particularly for larger wild mammals with greater territorial needs.
With no large apex predators in Ireland other than humans and dogs, such populations of animals as semi-wild deer that cannot be controlled by smaller predators, such as the fox, are controlled by annual culling.
There are no snakes in Ireland and only one species of reptile the common lizard is native to the island. Extinct species include the Irish elk , the great auk , brown bear and the wolf.
Some previously extinct birds, such as the golden eagle , been reintroduced in about the year after decades of extirpation. Ireland is now one of the least forested countries in Europe.
Much of the land is now covered with pasture and there are many species of wild-flower. Gorse Ulex europaeus , a wild furze , is commonly found growing in the uplands and ferns are plentiful in the more moist regions, especially in the western parts.
It is home to hundreds of plant species, some of them unique to the island, and has been "invaded" by some grasses, such as Spartina anglica.
The algal and seaweed flora is that of the cold-temperate variety. The total number of species is  and is distributed as follows:.
The island has been invaded by some algae, some of which are now well established. Because of its mild climate, many species, including sub-tropical species such as palm trees , are grown in Ireland.
The island itself can be subdivided into two ecoregions: The long history of agricultural production, coupled with modern intensive agricultural methods such as pesticide and fertiliser use and runoff from contaminants into streams, rivers and lakes, impact the natural fresh-water ecosystems and have placed pressure on biodiversity in Ireland.
A land of green fields for crop cultivation and cattle rearing limits the space available for the establishment of native wild species.
Hedgerows, however, traditionally used for maintaining and demarcating land boundaries, act as a refuge for native wild flora. This ecosystem stretches across the countryside and acts as a network of connections to preserve remnants of the ecosystem that once covered the island.
Subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy , which supported agricultural practices that preserved hedgerow environments, are undergoing reforms.
The Common Agricultural Policy had in the past subsidised potentially destructive agricultural practices, for example by emphasising production without placing limits on indiscriminate use of fertilisers and pesticides; but reforms have gradually decoupled subsidies from production levels and introduced environmental and other requirements.
Remnants of native forest can be found scattered around the island, in particular in the Killarney National Park. Natural areas require fencing to prevent over-grazing by deer and sheep that roam over uncultivated areas.
Grazing in this manner is one of the main factors preventing the natural regeneration of forests across many regions of the country.
People have lived in Ireland for over 9, years. The different eras are termed mesolithic , neolithic , Bronze Age , and Iron Age.
Many survived into late medieval times, others vanished as they became politically unimportant. Over the past years, Vikings , Normans , Welsh , Flemings , Scots , English , Africans , Eastern Europeans and South Americans have all added to the population and have had significant influences on Irish culture.
The population rebounded and multiplied over the next century, but another devastating famine in the s caused one million deaths and forced over one million more to emigrate in its immediate wake.
Over the following century the population was reduced by over half, at a time when the general trend in European countries was for populations to rise by an average of three-fold.
Traditionally, Ireland is subdivided into four provinces: Connacht west , Leinster east , Munster south , and Ulster north. In a system that developed between the 13th and 17th centuries,  Ireland has 32 traditional counties.
Twenty-six of these counties are in the Republic of Ireland and six are in Northern Ireland. The six counties that constitute Northern Ireland are all in the province of Ulster which has nine counties in total.
As such, Ulster is often used as a synonym for Northern Ireland, although the two are not coterminous. In the Republic of Ireland, counties form the basis of the system of local government.
Counties Dublin , Cork , Limerick , Galway , Waterford and Tipperary have been broken up into smaller administrative areas. However, they are still treated as counties for cultural and some official purposes, for example postal addresses and by the Ordnance Survey Ireland.
Counties in Northern Ireland are no longer used for local governmental purposes,  but, as in the Republic, their traditional boundaries are still used for informal purposes such as sports leagues and in cultural or tourism contexts.
City status in Ireland is decided by legislative or royal charter. Dublin , with over 1 million residents in the Greater Dublin Area , is the largest city on the island.
Belfast, with , residents, is the largest city in Northern Ireland. City status does not directly equate with population size.
For example, Armagh , with 14, is the seat of the Church of Ireland and the Roman Catholic Primate of All Ireland and was re-granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II in having lost that status in local government reforms of In the Republic of Ireland, Kilkenny , seat of the Butler dynasty , while no longer a city for administrative purposes since the Local Government Act , is entitled by law to continue to use the description.
The population of Ireland collapsed dramatically during the second half of the 19th century. A population of over 8 million in was reduced to slightly more than 4 million by In part, the fall in population was due to death from the Great Famine of to , which took about 1 million lives.
However, by far the greater cause of population decline was the dire economic state of the country which led to an entrenched culture of emigration lasting until the 21st century.
Emigration from Ireland in the 19th century contributed to the populations of England, the United States, Canada and Australia, in all of which a large Irish diaspora lives.
As of [update] , 4. As of [update] , a total of Irish leaders have been prominent in the Catholic Church in the United States for over years while the Irish have been leaders in the Presbyterian and Methodist traditions as well.
With growing prosperity since the last decade of the 20th century, Ireland became a destination for immigrants. Since the European Union expanded to include Poland in , Polish people have made up the largest number of immigrants over ,  from Central Europe.
There has also been significant immigration from Lithuania , the Czech Republic and Latvia. Up to 50, eastern and central European migrant workers left Ireland in response to the Irish financial crisis.
The two official languages of the Republic of Ireland are Irish and English. Each language has produced a noteworthy literature.
Irish, though now only the language of a minority, was the vernacular of the Irish people for over two thousand years and was possibly introduced during the Iron Age.
It began to be written down after Christianisation in the 5th century and spread to Scotland and the Isle of Man, where it evolved into the Scottish Gaelic and Manx languages respectively.
The Irish language has a vast treasury of written texts from many centuries, and is divided by linguists into Old Irish from the 6th to 10th century, Middle Irish from the 10th to 13th century, Early Modern Irish until the 17th century, and the Modern Irish spoken today.
It remained the dominant language of Ireland for most of those periods, having influences from Latin , Old Norse , French and English.
It declined under British rule but remained the majority tongue until the early 19th century, and since then has been a minority language.
The Gaelic Revival of the early twentieth century has had a long-term influence. Irish is taught in mainstream Irish schools as a compulsory subject, but teaching methods have been criticised for their ineffectiveness, with the lack of level of ability after, typically, fourteen years of instruction cited.
There is now an extensive network of urban Irish speakers in both the Republic and Northern Ireland , especially in Dublin and Belfast.
They represent an expanding demographic, [ citation needed ] and their children often attend Irish-medium schools Gaelscoileanna.
It has been argued that they tend to be more highly educated than monolingual English speakers. Traditional rural Irish-speaking areas, known collectively as the Gaeltacht , are in linguistic decline.
The main Gaeltacht areas are in the west, south-west and north-west. English in Ireland was first introduced during the Norman invasion. It was spoken by a few peasants and merchants brought over from England, and was largely replaced by Irish before the Tudor conquest of Ireland.
It was introduced as the official language with the Tudor and Cromwellian conquests. The Ulster plantations gave it a permanent foothold in Ulster, and it remained the official and upper-class language elsewhere, the Irish-speaking chieftains and nobility having been deposed.
Language shift during the 19th century replaced Irish with English as the first language for a vast majority of the population.
Shelta , the language of the nomadic Irish Travellers is native to Ireland. This combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed Irish interlace or Celtic knotwork.
These can be seen in the ornamentation of medieval religious and secular works. The style is still popular today in jewellery and graphic art,  as is the distinctive style of traditional Irish music and dance, and has become indicative of modern "Celtic" culture in general.
Religion has played a significant role in the cultural life of the island since ancient times and since the 17th century plantations , has been the focus of political identity and divisions on the island.
These missions brought written language to an illiterate population of Europe during the Dark Ages that followed the fall of Rome , earning Ireland the sobriquet, "the island of saints and scholars".
Since the 20th century the Irish pubs worldwide have become, especially those with a full range of cultural and gastronomic offerings, outposts of Irish culture.
Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches, both in Irish and English. Poetry in Irish is among the oldest vernacular poetry in Europe, with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century.
Irish remained the dominant literary language down to the nineteenth century, despite the spread of English from the seventeenth century on.
The latter part of the nineteenth century saw a rapid replacement of Irish by English. By , however, cultural nationalists had begun the Gaelic revival , which saw the beginnings of a modern literature in Irish.
Other notable eighteenth century writers of Irish origin included Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan , though they spent most of their lives in England.
The playwright and poet Oscar Wilde , noted for his epigrams, was born in Ireland. In the 20th century, Ireland produced four winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature: Although not a Nobel Prize winner, James Joyce is widely considered to be one of the most significant writers of the 20th century.
Music has been in evidence in Ireland since prehistoric times. Outside religious establishments, musical genres in early Gaelic Ireland are referred to as a triad of weeping music goltraige , laughing music geantraige and sleeping music suantraige.
In the 19th century, public concerts provided access to classical music to all classes of society. Yet, for political and financial reasons Ireland has been too small to provide a living to many musicians, so the names of the better-known Irish composers of this time belong to emigrants.
Irish traditional music and dance has seen a surge in popularity and global coverage since the s. In the middle years of the 20th century, as Irish society was modernising, traditional music had fallen out of favour, especially in urban areas.
Groups and musicians including Horslips , Van Morrison and Thin Lizzy incorporated elements of Irish traditional music into contemporary rock music and, during the s and s, the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred, with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing.
The earliest known Irish graphic art and sculpture are Neolithic carvings found at sites such as Newgrange  and is traced through Bronze age artefacts and the religious carvings and illuminated manuscripts of the medieval period.
During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, a strong tradition of painting emerged, including such figures as John Butler Yeats , William Orpen , Jack Yeats and Louis le Brocquy.
The Irish philosopher and theologian Johannes Scotus Eriugena was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages.
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton , an Irish explorer, was one of the principal figures of Antarctic exploration. He, along with his expedition, made the first ascent of Mount Erebus and the discovery of the approximate location of the South Magnetic Pole.
Robert Boyle was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early gentleman scientist. Father Nicholas Joseph Callan , Professor of Natural Philosophy in Maynooth College , is best known for his invention of the induction coil , transformer and he discovered an early method of galvanisation in the 19th century.
With Sir John Douglas Cockcroft , he was the first to split the nucleus of the atom by artificial means and made contributions to the development of a new theory of wave equation.
Sir Joseph Larmor , a physicist and mathematician, made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics and the electron theory of matter.
His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a book on theoretical physics published in George Johnstone Stoney introduced the term electron in Notable mathematicians include Sir William Rowan Hamilton , famous for work in classical mechanics and the invention of quaternions.
Cosgrave was a specialist in number theory and discovered a digit prime number in and a record composite Fermat number in John Lighton Synge made progress in different fields of science, including mechanics and geometrical methods in general relativity.
He had mathematician John Nash as one of his students. Kathleen Lonsdale , born in Ireland and most known for her work with crystallography , became the first female president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Ireland has nine universities, seven in the Republic of Ireland and two in Northern Ireland, including Trinity College, Dublin and the University College Dublin , as well as numerous third-level colleges and institutes and a branch of the Open University, the Open University in Ireland.
Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement, with about 2, clubs on the island.
The island fields a single international team in most sports. One notable exception to this is association football, although both associations continued to field international teams under the name "Ireland" until the s.
The sport is also the most notable exception where the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland field separate international teams.
Northern Ireland has produced two World Snooker Champions. Gaelic football , hurling and handball are the best-known of the Irish traditional sports, collectively known as Gaelic games.
During the redevelopment of the Lansdowne Road stadium in —10, international rugby and soccer were played there.
The game has been played in an organised fashion in Ireland since the s, with Cliftonville F. It was most popular, especially in its first decades, around Belfast and in Ulster.
However, some clubs based outside Belfast thought that the IFA largely favoured Ulster-based clubs in such matters as selection for the national team.
However, both the IFA and FAI continued to select their teams from the whole of Ireland, with some players earning international caps for matches with both teams.
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